Busline News February 2020
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By Rick Mullen,
Busline Magazine Associate Editor
The following import/export categories include motor buses, coaches, trolley buses and gyrobuses.
The U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau trade figures for November 2019 indicated vehicle imports were up in seven categories outlined, compared to November 2018. For the first 11 months of 2019, vehicles imports were also up in seven categories, compared to the first 11 months of 2018.
Public-Transport Type Passenger Motor Vehicles With Only Comp-Ign Internal Combustion Piston Engine (Diesel Or Semi-Diesel), Designed For Transport Of 16 Or More Persons, Incl
The United States imported 287 vehicles in November 2019, up 23 percent from 234 vehicles imported in November 2018. For the first 11 months of 2019, the United States imported 2,621 vehicles, up 21 percent from 2,175 for the first 11 months of 2018.
Canada sent 1,486 vehicles to the United States during the first 11 months of 2019.
The average price per vehicle for November 2019 was $322,748.59, down 23 percent from the average price for November 2018 of $420,381.25. The average price per vehicle for the first 11 months of 2019 was $316,936.63, down 20 percent from $398,598.27 for the first 11 months of 2018.
Public-Transport Passenger Vehicles For Transport Of 10 Or More Persons With Only Comp-Ign Internal Combustion Piston Engine (Diesel Or Semi-Diesel), Other
The United States received 47 vehicles in November 2019, compared to 200 vehicles for November 2018. For the first 11 months of 2019, the United States imported 1,280 vehicles, down 26 percent from 1,724 vehicles for the first 11 months of 2018.
The United States imported 1,243 vehicles from Germany during the first 11 months of 2019.
The average price of the vehicles for November 2019 was $39,996.45, down 1 percent from $40,551.56 for November 2018. The average price per vehicle for the first 11 months of 2019 was $42,660.94, down 2 percent from $43,338.19 for the first 11 months of 2018.Public-Transport Type Passenger Motor Vehicles With Comp-Ign Internal Combustion Piston Engine (Diesel Or Semi-Diesel), And Electric Motor Designed For Transport Of 16 Or More Persons
The United States imported 22 vehicles during November 2019. There were no vehicles received during November 2018. During the first 11 months of 2019, 241 vehicles were imported, up significantly from six vehicles for the first 11 months of 2018.
All the vehicles imported came from Canada.
The average price for November 2019 was $235,830.95. The average price for the first 11 months of 2019 was $229,980.53, down 53 percent from $490,661.50 for the first 11 months of 2018.Public-Transport Type Passenger Motor Vehicles For Transport Of 10 Or More Persons With Comp-Ign Internal Combustion Piston Engine (Diesel Or Semi-Diesel), And Electric
No vehicles in this category were imported during 2018 and thus far in 2019.
Public-Transport Type Passenger Motor Vehicles With Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Piston Engine And Electric Motor For 16 Or More Persons
No vehicles in this category were received by the United States in November 2019 or November 2018. The United States imported two vehicles from Canada during the first 11 months of 2019, at an average price of $15,200. No vehicles were imported during the first 11 months of 2018. Public-Transport Type Passenger Motor Vehicles With Both Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Piston Engine and Electric Motor for 10 to 15 Persons
The United States imported one vehicle from Canada in this category during November 2019, which is the only one received for the first 11 months of 2019, at a price of $27,485. During the first 11 months 2018, one vehicle in this category was received, at a price of $10,325. Public-Transport Type Passenger Motor Vehicles With Electric Motor Only, For Transport Of 16 Or More Persons Including Driver
The United States imported 25 vehicles during November 2019, at an average price of $208,958.16. There were no vehicles imported during November 2018. During the first 11 months of 2019, 447 vehicles were received, compared to 18 for the first 11 months of 2018.
Canada shipped 328 vehicles during the first 11 months of 2019.
The average price per vehicle for November 2019 was $208,958.16. The average price for the first 11 months of 2019 was $131,743.84, down 27 percent from $180,598.50 for the first 11 months of 2018.Public-Transport Type Passenger Motor Vehicles, With Electric Motor Only For Propulsion, NESOI
The United States imported four vehicles during November 2019, up 33 percent from three vehicles for November 2018. During the first 11 months of 2019, 112 vehicles were imported, up 60 percent from 70 vehicles for the first 11 months of 2018.
China sent all of the vehicles during the first 11 months of 2019.
The average price per vehicle for November 2019 was $12,926, up 103 percent from $6,354.67 for November 2018. The average price per vehicle for the first 11 months of 2019 was $8,438.77, down 2 percent from $8,617.10 for the first 11 months of 2018.
Public-Transport Type Passenger Motor Vehicles For 16 Or More Persons Including Driver, NESOI
The United States imported 70 vehicles during November 2019, up 35 percent from 52 for November 2018. During the first 11 months of 2019, 1,399 vehicles were received, up 28 percent from 1,089 for the first 11 months of 2018.
Canada sent 1,375 vehicles to the United States during the first 11 months of 2019.
The average price per vehicle for November 2019 was $134,184.84, up 102 percent from $66,344.83 for November 2018. The average price for the first 11 months of 2019 was $81,184.83, up 14 percent from $71,364.22 for the first 11 months of 2018.Motor Vehicles For The Transport Of 10 To 15 Persons Including Driver, NESOI
The United States imported 211 vehicles during November 2019, compared to 33 vehicles for November 2018. During the first 11 months of 2019, 1,448 vehicles were received, up 8 percent from 1,345 for the first 11 months of 2018.
Canada sent 1,045 vehicles to the United States during the first 11 months of 2019.
The average price per vehicle for November 2019 was $50,768.17, up 19 percent from $42,702.88 for November 2018. The average price for the first 11 months of 2019 was $44,576.29, down 3 percent from $46,042.93 for the first 11 months of 2018.
Export totals for November 2019 were up in three categories, compared to November 2018. For the first 11 months of 2019, three categories also reported increases.
Public-Transport Type Passenger Motor Vehicles With A Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Piston Engine (Diesel Or Semi-Diesel) Only
The United States exported 657 vehicles during November 2019, up 21 percent from 543 vehicles exported in November 2018. During the first 11 months of 2019, 7,179 were sent, down 14 percent from 8,358 for the first 11 months of 2018.
Canada received 4,460 vehicles during the first 11 months of 2019, while Mexico imported 1,205.
The average price per vehicle for November 2019 was $65,387.38, down 31 percent from the average price for November 2018 of $94,133.69. The average price for the first 11 months of 2019 was $67,725.75, down 16 percent from $80,955.27 for the first 11 months of 2018.
Public-Transport Vehicles With Both Compression-Ignition Internal Combustion Piston Engine (Diesel Or Semi-Diesel) & Electric Motor
The United States shipped nine vehicles in November 2019, compared to 296 for November 2018. During the first 11 months of 2019, 2,228 vehicles were exported, compared to 806 for the first 11 months of 2018.
Canada received 1,989 vehicles during the first 11 months of 2019.
The average price per vehicle for November 2019 was $4,123.78, down 86 percent from $29,670.70 for November 2018. The average price for the first 11 months of 2019 was $27,788.62, up 19 percent from $23,393.39 for the first 11 months of 2018.Public-Transport Type Passenger Motor Vehicles With Both Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Piston Engine & Electric Motor
The United States exported 27 vehicles in November 2019, up 108 percent from 13 vehicles for November 2018. During the first 11 months of 2019, 283 vehicles were shipped, up 5 percent from 270 vehicles for the first 11 months of 2018.
Mexico received 93 vehicles during the first 11 months of 2019, while Venezuela imported 59 vehicles and the Bahamas 47 vehicles.
The average price per vehicle for November 2019 was $25,043.04, down 1 percent from the average price for November 2018 of $25,179.23. The average price for the first 11 months of 2019 was $32,101.40, down 4 percent from $33,491.06 for the first 11 months of 2018.
Public-Transport Type Passenger Motor Vehicles With Only Electric Motor For Propulsion
The United States shipped 30 vehicles in November 2019, up 7 percent from 28 vehicles for November 2018. During the first 11 months of 2019, 776 vehicles were exported, compared to 75 vehicles for the first 11 months of 2018.
Canada received 758 vehicles during the first 11 months of 2019.
The average price for November 2019 was $38,182.87, up 27 percent from $30,016.21 for November 2018. The average price for the first 11 months of 2019 was $30,166.24, down 72 percent from $108,425.64 for the first 11 months of 2018.
Click on statistics to open .pdf file
Irizar E-Mobility Becomes The First Green Energy Electromobility Factory In Europe
EKIAN - The largest solar farm in the Basque Country of Spain.
“Irizar e-mobility has become the first green energy electromobility factory in Europe by opening and commissioning the largest photovoltaic solar farm in the Basque Country (Spain),” according to a press release.
The park was opened in the presence of Lehendakari (president of the Basque government) Iñigo Urkullu, and a delegation of the Basque government, together with the Basque Energy Agency and the partners of the EKIAN solar farm, of which the Irizar Group is one of the largest investors with its acquisition of 3 MW.
“The energy generated in this farm will supply the Irizar e-mobility facilities, making it the first factory for the production of electric buses with zero emissions clean energy in Europe.”
Irizar said, “The Irizar Group is fully committed to the environment and, since it obtained ISO 14001 in 1998, has been actively taking steps in energy transformation.
“The commitment to electromobility (since 2011) is the clearest expression of its care for the environment and the well-being of citizens. The result of this commitment is the National Environment Award in the product-service category in Spain, which Irizar won in 2016.”
Irizar e-mobility was inaugurated in 2018, the first factory in Europe for electromobility solutions, designed and manufactured based on eco-sustainability concepts with a type A energy efficiency certificate, the maximum available in Europe. It includes a warehouse and domestic water heating system that works by using the surplus steam from a company located in the adjoining plot.
“The Irizar Group develops and manufactures its own batteries, under a partnership agreement signed with the Basque Energy Agency and Respol. It also offers a second life for its batteries, so that they can be reused at the end of their life-cycle in the buses, as storage components in recharging stations for electric vehicles in Repsol service stations, together with the power electronics associated with their use.
“Also in 2019, after completing the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Irizar became the first European coach manufacturer with a certified EDP based on the international standard UNE-EN ISO 14025 by the International EDP System.”
It is currently involved in a number of Circular Economy projects, in alternative energies, and in other major European projects, all to contribute to a sustainable mobility future.
“The progressive reduction of CO2 emissions and other polluting substances, together with the introduction of environmental criteria, from the design of its products to the respect for the environment of its staff and freelancers, are their most important premises.”
For more information, visit www.irizar.com.
Prevost Launches Driver Assist Electronics Suite For Peace-Of-Mind
Prevost has launched its advanced driver safety assistance suite, Prevost Driver Assist™.
“The electronic system works with the driver to mitigate challenging situations, including lane departure and potential frontal incidents. Its heads-up display is the industry’s first,” said Prevost.
The system includes adaptive cruise control with braking, following distance alerts – both available since 2011 as Prevost Aware – and adds frontal collision mitigation, stationary vehicle braking, lane departure warning and a dash integrated heads-up display.
Prevost Driver Assist is available as an option on all 2021 models and can be retrofitted on coaches with ABS8, back to model year 2018.
“Along with our operators, we are totally engaged in improving the safety of every Prevost motorcoach ride,” said François Tremblay, Prevost vice president/general manager. “We know that drivers are at the center of safety, so we integrated Prevost Driver Assist to do just that – help drivers before intervening. Drivers have told us this gives them real peace-of-mind and confidence.
“As an example of that approach, Prevost Driver Assist is based on a series of escalations. In the event of a situation, the driver first receives a subtle alert. If the situation continues, the alert becomes more urgent with a louder sound and brighter visual warnings. If the driver still has not alleviated the situation, then Prevost Driver Assist intervenes. It’s a true joint effort between the skilled driver and the vehicle.”
Prevost Driver Assist Components
Prevost Driver Assist fully integrates radar, camera, braking and driver communications technologies for motorcoach applications, offering:
• Frontal collision mitigation;
• Stationary vehicle braking;
• Lane departure warning;
• Adaptive cruise control with braking;
• Following distance alerts.
Prevost Driver Assist also fully integrates with the coach’s standard anti-lock braking and stability control programs. The data from these technologies all work together, constantly gathering and sharing information and then acting when needed.
For more information, visit www.prevostcar.com.
Four Livery Edition MCI J4500 Coaches For A Step Above Limousine In Charlotte And Atlanta Markets
A Step Above Limousine's Ayman Abusamak, owner and founder, and Kaitlin Brady,
operations manager (front right), take delivery of four Livery Edition MCI J4500 coaches
from MCI Sales Representatives Sean Kelchen and Janet Cathey.
Motor Coach Industries (MCI), a U.S. subsidiary of NFI Group Inc., helped launch the charter coach division of A Step Above Limousine, Charlotte, NC, and its sister company, Ambassador Global, in Atlanta, GA, with the delivery of four luxury MCI J4500 coaches. The delivery included three new and one pre-owned MCI J4500 coaches.
“These Livery Edition MCI J4500 coaches are sleek and elegant in black on the outside and a complete luxury experience on the inside with detailed black leather diamond-stitched seating, best leg room in its coach class, power outlets and Wi-Fi connectivity. The models also feature such options as programmable multicolor interior lighting, collision mitigation and back-up cameras,” according to a release.
Ayman Abusamak, founder and owner of both companies, looked at other coach brands, and said he was attracted to the MCI J4500 for its modern design and quality craftsmanship, along with the professionalism of the MCI teams in service and support.
“Friends in the industry also suggested MCI to me,” said Abusamak, whose 30-plus fleet of vehicles also includes minibuses. “The move to motor coaches is a natural progression for us as our top clients are seeking this type of transportation.”
Abusamak’s company just signed a contract with Charter UP, an Atlanta-based charter bus service reservation platform that connects customers and groups in need of ground transportation. Other major events in 2020 will keep his divisions on the move. The 2020 NCAA Final Four is coming to Mercedes-Benz Stadium in Atlanta starting April 4, and the 2020 Republican National Convention in Charlotte runs August 24-27.
“The Livery Edition MCI J4500 class of coaches are real differentiators in both our markets,” said Abusamak.
Abusamak became an airport greeter at age13 for his father’s limousine company, and was the youngest licensed limo driver in the state of Georgia at the age of 16. He drove every style of livery vehicle while learning the business from the ground up.
“He opened A Step Above Limousine in Charlotte 20 years ago and expanded into Atlanta five years later. Clients in both cities get the highest level of personal service and well-trained drivers. All drivers receive ongoing training in safe driving practices with required participation in safety workshops and online courses offered through the MCI Academy. Abusamak’s company uses fleet-tracking technology including onboard dash cameras, electronic logging devices, telematics and GPS.”
Each driver dresses in a coat and tie for the job. “We’re still a limousine company,” said Abusamak. “We’re very pleased to be able to bring this new level of service to the areas we serve.”
TRANSIT AGENCY NEWS
IndyGo (Indianapolis, IN)
IndyGo (Indianapolis, IN) will install audible crosswalk signals at all its Red Line stations. These audible crosswalk signals will assist riders with visual impairments in determining when the “walk” sign is displayed. These additions will begin in the coming months.
IndyGo will also begin improvements along areas of its Red Line, including replacing rubber medians with concrete. These two improvements are within the remainder of IndyGo’s Red Line project budget.
IndyGo said its Red Line is the nation’s first fully-battery electric bus rapid transit line, besides California.
RTA (Cleveland, OH)
RTA is scheduling a series of community meetings to seek “input from diverse constituencies to garner stakeholder and public engagement feedback." That feedback will form the basis for RTA’s final Strategic Plan, which will outline RTA's key strategies to the year 2030.
“We’re looking forward to hearing from our stakeholders in order to develop RTA’s ‘Framework for the Future,’” said RTA CEO and General Manager India Birdsong. “Community input is critical, and this step will help direct not only RTA’s system improvements, but help inform its ability to implement innovative transportation solutions that will positively impact the region in the years ahead.”
Also, Greater Cleveland RTA riders will receive “thank you” goodie bags at random stops throughout the system in celebration of “Ohio Loves Transit” week. Customers may also participate in NOACA’s GoOhio Commute promotion.
Sun Tran (Tucson, AZ)
The city of Tucson (COT) and Sun Tran were awarded $221,100 from the Federal Transit Administration’s (FTA) Human Trafficking Awareness and Public Safety Initiative. The grant will allow funding for the COT and Sun Tran to implement solutions to reduce human trafficking, protect transit operators from the risk of assault, and reduce crime on public transit vehicles.
Efforts will include training on how to identify activities related to human trafficking, and how to report it to authorities. The city and Sun Tran will provide education and training to all Tucson transit operators. Following the training sessions, Sun Tran will implement a public awareness campaign. The campaign will aim to raise awareness of human trafficking and to educate the public about recognizing the activities of human traffickers. There will be materials available to the public and transit riders about what human trafficking looks like and what to do when they see something.
RTC (Las Vegas, NV)
The Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada (RTC) will receive a $160,000 Innovations in Transit Public Safety Grant from the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) that will support a number of local, state and regional efforts to combat human trafficking.
The RTC submitted the grant application in partnership with FirstMed, a federally qualified health center that offers comprehensive trauma-informed, wraparound services and assistance to crime victims. The $160,000 will allow the RTC to create a training program, led by local law enforcement for bus drivers and transit ambassadors, to better identify the signs of human trafficking, designate safe places for victims to receive assistance, and help victims reach a safe haven where they can receive services including emergency housing, medical and behavioral healthcare support, and victim advocacy. RTC will also engage in a public awareness campaign in January 2021 to coincide with National Human Trafficking Awareness month that will include information made available throughout the transit system, wrapped transit vehicles, notifications at transit shelters and facilities and brochures.
HART (Tampa, FL)
The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has awarded the Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority (HART) with a Human Trafficking Awareness & Public Safety Initiative Grant totaling $100,240. The grant will be used to conduct a public awareness campaign about human trafficking leading up to Super Bowl LV, which will be held in Tampa in 2021.
The public awareness campaign will include educational materials for the public, and critical training for HART employees in recognizing and reporting human trafficking.
MTS (San Diego, CA)
Ridership on the Metropolitan Transit System (MTS) Trolley and bus network continues its steady climb reaching nearly 1.2 million extra passenger trips in the first six-months of Fiscal Year 2020, which began on July 1, 2019. The last time MTS saw this level of ridership gains was in FY 2015, when the agency recorded back-to-back years of record ridership.
The spike has been led by the trolley, which last year posted eight straight months of year-over-year gains (April-November), including a 9 percent jump in September.
“The increase in the first three months was encouraging, but you always want to see that sustained in the second quarter. We’ve made that jump,” said Paul Jablonski, MTS chief executive officer. “Last month we increased service on the UC San Diego Blue Line due to high demand, and we will continue to do those types of things operationally to keep the momentum.”
JTA (Jacksonville, FL)
The Jacksonville Transportation Authority (JTA) welcomed hundreds of national and international guests at the Ultimate Urban Circulator (U2C) Industry Forum in Jacksonville Feb. 19 to solicit industry feedback on JTA’s autonomous vehicle program.
Industry experts, policy makers, public transportation professionals and private sector innovators converged in Jacksonville following the successful Request for Information exercise the JTA completed in February.
The U2C Industry Forum featured a panel discussion focused on policy, procurement, infrastructure, autonomous vehicle technology and transit-oriented development. Additional breakout sessions facilitated a more specific discussion on engineering, the Internet of Things (IOT), the Skyway infrastructure and procurement.
Feedback received during the forum will assist the JTA in developing and issuing an official Request for Proposals, expected by summer 2020.
ABC Companies Debuts Van Hool CX45E All Electric, Zero Emissions Coach
With seating for up to 56 passengers, the All Electric Van Hool CX45E brings the reliability and performance of the Van Hool CX series to a zero-emissions platform, available exclusively in North America from ABC Companies.
For operators who are looking to expand their fleets with EV, the Van Hool CX45E All Electric coach delivers the full feature/functionality of a premium motorcoach that has been purpose built to eliminate carbon emissions and fuel and oil-related costs, while providing a quiet, smooth transport experience. By design, the new CX45E is ready to integrate with existing ICE Van Hool and mixed fleets, with the added bonus of extensive components interchangeability for operators currently running Van Hool CX Series models.
“As EV adoption becomes increasingly popular in the motorcoach sector, ABC is prepared and proud to help operators smoothly transition EV into their fleets,” ABC Companies President and Chief Commercial Officer Roman Cornell said. “The new CX45E is the culmination of three leading organizations that understand the deeper ramifications of EV fleet integration.”
ABC Companies, along with partners Van Hool and Proterra, are positioned to help owners fully explore the EV ownership investment, and support development of an optimal operating environment, according to Cornell.
The new Van Hool CX45E combines Siemens’ modular ELFA II drivetrain system with Proterra’s E2 high-power, high-density battery system — in conjunction with energy-efficient ELFA drive and converter technology — to support daily range targets for operators. With an optimized chassis that has been engineered for balanced weight distribution, and featuring premium passenger and driver amenities, the Van Hool CX45E can seamlessly integrate into existing fleet operations.
Van Hool CX45E passenger/driver amenities include: Modular entry at stairwell featuring “down lit” safety lighting; Low-profile, brushed aluminum handrails for passenger security, long wear and modern style; Soft touch and textured finishes on seating, modesty panels, dash and throughout passenger area that offer a sleek, inviting interior look; Blackened window frames, trim and seat tracks that create a luxury cabin look and with less maintenance for owners; Modesty panels with enlarged cup holders and generous passenger leg room; Side entry restroom that expands footprint; and, Comfortable, ample driver’s area.
Visit www.abc-companies.com for more information.
Daimler Coaches North America Assumes Responsibility For Daimler Buses Touring Coach Business In U.S. And Canada
Daimler Buses assumes responsibility for touring coach business in the USA and Canada with its autonomous business unit, Daimler Coaches North America (DCNA).
"With our new business unit, Daimler Coaches North America, we want to make optimal use of the opportunities offered by the touring coach market in the USA and Canada," said Till Oberwörder, head of Daimler Buses.
“Wide, tailor-made service range and highly efficient replacement parts logistics optimally serve customer requirements in North America. We also offer cooperation with Daimler Trucks North America (DTNA), and with Detroit Diesel Corporation on service and replacement parts logistics.”
According to a press release, “The founding of DCNA sees Daimler's bus division assuming independent responsibility for its North American touring coach business. To this end, Daimler has taken over the shares in REV Coach LLC from the REV Group. REV Coach LLC was previously responsible for the sale and servicing of Setra touring coaches in the USA and Canada.”
Making Optimal Use Of The North American Touring Coach Market
"With our new business unit, Daimler Coaches North America, we want to make optimal use of the opportunities offered by the touring coach market in the USA and Canada. The founding of DCNA underscores the strategic aim of Daimler Buses to further extend its global market presence," said Oberwörder.
DCNA is based in Fort Mill, SC. As an autonomous business unit, it is part of the global business of Daimler Buses.
The director is Dr. Thomas Rohde, who was previously responsible for the bus business of Daimler Buses in Central Europe as CEO of EvoBus Austria and EvoBus Ceska Republica.
Thomas Rohde, CEO of DCNA, said, "Speaking of the future, in the USA and Canada, we want to operate with the same professional market management which sees Daimler Buses enjoy success as the market leader in its core markets of Europe, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico. With a broad, comprehensive service range and highly efficient replacement parts logistics, we want to serve the requirements of our customers in North America and Canada in the best way possible. We would like to thank our previous partner, the REV Group, for its commitment to our North American touring coach business, and for its cooperativeness during the entire takeover process."
Aftersales Network Of Daimler Trucks North America For The Provision Of Comprehensive Service And Highly Efficient Replacement Parts Logistics
Daimler Coaches North America will also continue to offer products of the premium brand Setra in the USA and Canada. Through close cooperation with Daimler Trucks North America (DTNA), the established replacement parts and service structures are also to be used for the touring coach business in the future. This means that bus companies benefit from one of the most modern aftersales networks in North America.
The aim is to configure the range of services and the availability of replacement parts in such a way that they are even better tailored to customer requirements and structured highly efficiently. Closer collaboration with Daimler Trucks North America, when it comes to the provision of replacement parts, is set to ensure a comprehensive offering in the USA and Canada.
DCNA is continuing its close cooperation with Detroit Diesel Corporation. Bus companies can use the extensive network of authorized service points with trained, certified technicians from Detroit Diesel Corporation. In addition to DCNA's central service center in Fort Worth, in areas with a larger Setra fleet, selected sites are being trained and qualified in order to guarantee a comprehensive bus service for the overall vehicle, and serve as a local supplier for replacement parts.
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